Development of the production of polymeric & composite materials as one of competitive advantages of the Russian economics

Авторы: Larin Sergey Nicolaevich, Sokolov Nicolay Alexandrovich

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Рубрика: Экономические науки

Объём: 0,34

Опубликовано в: «Наука без границ» № 8(36), август 2019

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Библиографическое описание: Larin S.N., Sokolov N.A. Development of the production of polymeric & composite materials as one of competitive advantages of the Russian economics // Nauka bez granic. 2019. № 8(36). С.

Summary: The main purpose of this study is to reveal modern competitive advantages of different branches of the Russian MIC, namely, the expansion of scales of application of new polymeric composite materials, which can be successfully implemented in branch strategies of the import substitution. The article substantiates that at the modern stage of the upgrading of the Russian economics the application of polymeric composite materials stipulates the intensification of the manufacturing of high technology and science consuming production. Due to extreme features and whole new characteristics polymeric composite materials are already been used almost in all branches of the Russian economics. The existing lag behind developed countries in the part of use of polymeric & composite materials can be offset rather quickly due to the intensive development of its production.

Keywords: branch import replacement strategies; sanction restrictions; competitive advantages; composite materials.

 Introduction

In the whole modern world it is difficult to find a branch of industry, not using somehow polymeric & composite materials (РСМ). So, nowadays leading industrial areas in USA and Europe are being actively using such materials. If we compare the share of РСМ consumption by the foreign production with the share of its consumption by leading branches of the Russian economics, it will, accordingly, be 20 times higher for USA and 10 times higher for Europe. In Russian economics РСМ are being used mostly in the aircraft engineering, where its share achieves 15%, while in the ship building industry the share of these materials does not exceed 2%. Naturally, in order to reduce the negative influence of sanction restrictions, Russia should at faster pace develop scientific & research and experimental development (R&D) in order to develop the РСМ production and to implement it in future for the development of high technologic branches of its economics. That’s why to be sure the expansion of scales and areas of PCM application is one of material competitive advantages of the Russian MIC, which can be successfully implemented in branch strategies of the import substitution. Modern peculiarities of these processes will be disclosed in this article.

Target of research

The main target of this research is to reveal modern competitive advantages of the Russian economics, namely, the expansion of scales of manufacturing and application of РСМ, which can be successfully used for the implementation in branch strategies of the import substitution.

Маterials and methods

The implementation of branch import substitution strategies at the modern stage of the economic development of Russia contributes to the intensive transfer to the manufacturing of the high technology and science consuming production. It is based on the active implementation of innovative technologies, increasing quality of the released production, modernization of all branches of economics. There is good reason that Minpromtorg of Russia has approved 20 branch plans of the import substitution, covering 2200 technologic trends of the development of national economics and determining measures for the stimulation of branches and leading enterprises, taking part in the implementation of such programs [1].

Anyway, till the present time, there are still negative factors in Russia, hindering the stable growth of the production of branches of the national economics. Among it should be highlighted the negative financing of R & D, oriented to the obtaining of materials with principally new features, keeping the technological inferiority of Russian manufacturers of the new generation of РСМ. In this juncture the sufficiently great quantity of national enterprises have to purchase necessary raw materials, resins and fibers abroad. Principally new РСМ features are created by means of use of several components. These materials are based on the matrix, made of metal, polymer or ceramics, which is additionally reinforced by fillers, made of different kinds of fibers, crystals and particles [2].

The remaining negative factor is the worked out system of tenders for the purchase of such kinds of materials. On the one hand it clearly comprises the whole scope of materials for the purchase, but on the other hand it completely lacks the necessary flexibility in the selection of alternate solutions. Besides that, enterprises have not got qualified experts, having necessary professional competences, knowledge and experience in the РСМ production. There is no sufficient interaction between direct manufacturers of РСМ and large scale branch enterprises, which would have got the extra incentive for its development while replacing traditional materials by РСМ. Another sophisticated problem is that there are no viable mechanisms of the technical regulation, Russian standards for the РСМ production, аs well as methods for its testing. So, for example, only in 2015 in Russia was implemented the GOST for the glass fiber made of the glass wool.

With that nowadays there are all conditions for the development of the production of composite materials and the situation in this area is gradually improving. To a great extent these terms are provided by the scientific backlog, preserved by MIC, the need for the implementation of branch strategies of the import substitution and for the increase of the efficiency of the interaction between PCM manufacturing enterprises and large consumer enterprises.

As we know, the practice of use of РСМ nowadays cover many industrial area. It is applied in construction, for the manufacturing of armored glasses, medical prosthetics, elements for electronic plates etc. Brand new РСМ features allow its successful application in aircraft building, car building, ship building and rocket building industry for the manufacturing of military and civil production. Elements of devices and equipment, manufactured of РСМ, are used for the exploitation in aggressive media and at high temperatures, namely: in satellite vehicles, at nuclear plants, at manufacturing of the military technique and armaments’ systems.

Main kinds of РСМ comprise: metallic composite materials, based on non-ferrous metals (copper, aluminum, nickel etc.); ceramic РСМ, manufactured by the agglomeration technique under the ceramic mass pressure with the addition of organic fibers, both of natural and artificial origin, which weight features considerably exceed fiberglass and carbon fiber items; laminated fabrics, which production is based on the polymeric matrix and tissues of different origin are used as filler.

Nowadays, as РСМ filler are used different polymeric substances, providing leeway for its application in different areas, both civil ones, for example, dentistry, and the military one, for example, for the manufacturing of the military technique and of armaments’ systems. The modern practice shows that РСМ are more effectively applied in high technology industries. So, the modern aircraft cannot be created without РСМ, with that in leading models of aircrafts the РСМ share exceeds 60%. The main peculiarity of РСМ is the possibility to obtain a certain set of features by means of the combination of different matrices and its reinforcing elements. In other words, nowadays РСМ can be manufactured with earlier given features to be applied in certain branches of economics [2].

Nowadays two methods are being used for the production of РСМ and items made of it. The first of it – the vacuum infusion technology – allows to manufacture sufficient large scale items. Anyway, the high cost of used materials is a material shortage of this technology. Otherwise, such another production method as РСМ – RTM, are of limited application at the manufacturing of too large-format items. In this juncture it is used for the production of mid-range products, from which the whole construction is being assembled. The use of РСМ for the manufacturing of large scale structures consolidates several technologic processes. At the input there is a certain consequence of the feeding of ordinary and construction materials. In the course of production according to such or such technology it is transformed to РСМ and used for the assembly of a certain item.

Results and discussions

Already in 2016 the share of foreign completing parts and equipment, manufacturing with application of РСМ in some branches of the Russian economics exceeded 90%. Nowadays РСМ serves as basis for the development and creation of devices, having enhanced invisibility features, to which are referred unmanned drones (UMD). The use of РСМ in details of UMD constructions considerably hinders its reveal at middle and far distances.

Nowadays the share of РСМ application in the aircraft building area continues its stable growth. If in last 80s the share of РСМ items was 10-15% from the plane weight, than in modern long-haul aircrafts it exceeds 60%. РСМ is used for the manufacturing of the centre wing, body, wing and tailplane structure. For the most modern Russian МС-21 at AeroComposite plant in Ulianovsk was launched the serial production of the РСМ wing structure. In the aircraft building industry are carried out R & D for the development of most modern technologies for the production of light absorber loaded РСМ on the basis of nanocarbon compounds. Due to the successful application of РСМ in the aircraft building industry Russia is being actively developing the production of civil planes and is among leading world countries for the production of modern military planes.

Conclusion

Results, obtained in the course of research, allow to formulate following opinions.

1. The implementation of branch import substantiation programs is as relevant as ever for the PCM manufacturing. First of all due to the active development and implementation of modern PCM in the manufacturing of the modern military technique and armaments. In this way are implemented competitive advantages of the Russian MIC.

2. The Federal program “Development of the Military & Industrial Complex” establishes the requirement for the step by step increase of the civil production volume at branch MIC enterprises. So, till the year 2020 the share of such production should grow in 1,3 times [3]. Accordingly should be also expected the growth of the share of PCM used for its manufacturing. This circumstance allows to be quite optimistic as to prospects of development and implementation of import substitution programs in the national economics.

References
1. Маterials of the official site of the Industry and Trade Ministry of the Russian Federation [Electronic resource]. Available at: https://minpromtorg.gov.ru/.
2. Composite materials: what is that, production and application [Electronic resource]. Available at: https://fb.ru/article/264869/kompozitnyie-materialyi-chto-eto-takoe-svoystva-proizvodstvo-i-primenenie.
3. Federal program “Development of the Military & Industrial Complex”. Approved by the Decree of the RF Government № 425-8 оf May 16 2016 [Electronic resource]. Available at: https://minpromtorg.gov.ru/common/upload/files/ docs/44[1].pdf.

Материал поступил в редакцию 10.08.2019
© Ларин С.Н., Соколов Н.А., 2019