Representation of moral and law education problems in «Avesto»
Библиографическое описание: Allambergenov E. K. Representation of moral and law education problems in «Avesto» // Наука без границ. - 2017. - № 3 (8). - 86-91.
Аннотация: Статья посвящается описанию содержания разделов «Ясна», «Вандидат», «Яшта», «Виспаради», «Вендидот» священной книги «Авесто», которая учит людей отличать хорошее от плохого, защищать свои права. Анализируются такие понятия как нравственность, хорошее-плохое, право, правонарушение, гражданское право, семейное право и правовое образование, и делается вывод о том, что «Авесто» представляет собой не только национальную ценность, но и общечеловеческую.
Summary: The article is devoted to the description of the content of such parts as «Yasna», «Vandidat», «Yashta», «Visparadi», «Vendidot» of the holy book «Avesto», that teaches people to differ good from bad and to protect their rights. There have been analysed such notions as morality, good and evil, rights, violation of rights, civilian rights, family rights and law education. The author comes to the conclusion that «Avesto» is not only of a national value, but of general human value as well.
Actually, President Sh. M. Mirziyoyev assessed fairly, first president I. A. Karimov in the initial years of independence put the main task and improved it as a state politics «to construct law democracy free citizenship society which puts in main position the role of citizens ruling the country» or the idea of carrying out direction «from strong state to citizenship society» besides the reforms to improve all spheres of national industry, renew social-economic, political-cultural, spiritual-mental life of people for the great future of Uzbekistan.
Surely, for this we should to spread citizenship institution system in our social life, it needed to give legal knowledge, skill, culture, all law education to the youth and a lot of aims were achieved on this direction. If we mention first President I. A. Karimov on the 6-session of Oliy Majlis he stated «It is a main direction for installing legal country to renew law education, develop legal information» and he created the main basis for this direction. Also, the degree of first president on 27 June, 1997 «About the improvement of law education, enlargement the law culture of people, development of jurist cadre system and learning the ideas of society» and on the basis of this decree the direction were accepted on 29 August «Improving legal culture in society» were important political- legal documents.
The idea of improving legal culture was again confirmed by first president I. A. Karimov on 27 January, 2010 on his report «It is our main aim to modernize our country and create strong citizenship society». If we pay great attention to the political-legal documents and reports of President, improving the legal culture begins with learning and respecting of Constitution . It was completely shown on the decree of President accepted on 4 January, 2001. According to this decree, from 1 September, 2001 Constitution of Republic of Uzbekistan has been agitated on life-long education as the main law and basis of legal knowledge from kindergartens to higher education. We can give the examples for the doing of decree that «Constitution lessons» in the kindergartens, the subjects «Constitution lessons», «Adventure to the Constitution», «The basis of Uzbekistan and its law», «The basis of constitutional law» for nursery and 5-7, 8-9 classes and the legal education in academic lyceums and vocational colleges and higher education to show the implement of the decrees.
But law education and culture should not be taken just only in educational system. Also history, literature and national heritages are important to get law education [5, p. 47]. From this point of view, the sources of appearing legal education and upbringing come back to the early centuries.
One of the spiritual-cultural and legal heritages, the evidence of being high philosophical, social-political thoughts, political-legal norms and country, three thousand years before, sacred book of Zarostrizm «Avesto».
This book is not just only the philosophical thoughts, but also a sacred bridge combines past, present and future and educational object. First President valued as following: «this wonderful book is a spiritual and historical heritage of our ancestors who lived in space between two rivers XX century ago. «Avesto» is a historical document which identifies that in that time there were a great country, great moral, great culture and nobody can refuse it.
Truthfully, Avesto is the most ancient book for human in all sacred books, besides it is a great composition admonished and learnt to live with good thoughts, words and actions.
Our first president I. A. Karimov: «For us this book is not just recollection of early age, but it is a historical document affirms our many age history and traditional values and culture. «Avesto» is not just national, but also general human value involves all humanity in human civilization. It is a religious-philosophical composition contributed to develop world culture [8-15]. The initial sources of rules of respecting man and his rights begins from Avesto. Avesto the new philosophical religious – legal education of that age, became the main basis of prosperous and free life, the dimension of political – legal ideas of ruling the country and people. If human had not owned «Avesto» without legal dimensions, they would have disappeared on earth. So Zaratushtra in his education combined clansman, defend from evils, made possibility for prosperous life. In his admonitions, nobody is legable to kill the human. Also. All legal problems of man and members of society were written in this book. The initial data in this book dates back to the X century. These parts are called «Gatlar» and «Yashta». «Avesto» consists of different part and some of them came till nowadays for instatce, «Yasna», «Yashta», «Visparada», «Vandidot», furthermore there was gathered specific encyclopedic knowledge in it.
1. «Yasna» consists of 42 chapters; they are about telling beads to give praise to God, to pray and sacrifice. The main aim of it is to tell about honorary idea, honorary word, honorary issue.
2. «Vandidot» - is transformed form of the word «Viydayvadota», and it means fight against giants, or it is about the laws for fighting against evil, ignorance, and disgusting symbols. Moreover, there were describing praying ceremony, funeral ceremony, punishing the people who made on earth evil and lay, to build «dakhmas» (buried place for died person), burying ceremony, and the ceremony of turning out demons from died body with the help of dogs, keeping dogs and protecting them, relationship of man and woman, keeping clean hair and nails, benefit of water, upbringing toddlers and generally the ways of protecting people from different kind of evil things from Akhuramazda.
Briefly Vandidot is a collection of laws which are consisted of 22 pages. They are given as a conversation between Zoratushtra and Axuramazda. He demands that people should word honestly and care for others and be pure spiritualey.
He put like this slogan ahead «Direct your legs, hands and opinion to a honest work and prevent yourself from bad works, injustice and bad wishes»
3) Yahta – this is the collection of songs which respect gods in Zardusht religion.
4) Oispirada – is consisted of 24 chapters and collection of songs that are written in extra worry for «Yasna»
5) «Little Avest» – this is considered a collection of prays written for honour of god like hen, moon, Arvisura, Baxram.
The «Avesto», its analysed part Vandidot pay more attention to behavior, kindness and harm and the central one idea is to reach a humans legal culture and it is considered one of the head matter. For example: In the 12th section of is th part started about family laws in different sides.
In this part the root of society is family.
The composition of family:
a) the head of family – ifnanapty
b) his wife – imanapta
v) children Mentioned as in
«Avesto», duty of family and up bringing of children stamd especial role in zorastrizm. In this case the marriage of relatives is forbidden. Because there are created condition to keep clean the blowd of tribes and clans and to save generation without any defect.
There are said about to give allowance to many children family by government.
We can see in that periods social insurance laws were worred with aims by awarding the women who gave birth twins.
Again one thing that need to mention is that one of the factors which included basis of the economic clans man in Avesto – which they possession to find the imzaveling of social – political legal task in society.
Trible urity of Biske included 15 relative families. To Ruling of the society based on the printsip of military democracy.
Relation of family and leave a deposit issues to be done in lead of Bis the was elected by imanapti so, to lie done democratic rote suffrage. To strike to Common human values and also Justice and truth is honoured in Avesto.
According to «Yasna», truth and to speak truth is the statue of God.
It is better to die by speak truth than to alive by lie, the person who restain his passion and can’t curb it can’t achieve anything.
In general, this book which our ansistirs have been trying to keep, as it was, has been teaching to be fair, to disting wish goodness and harm, to be loyal to friends, and content with betray, to live in piece with other nations, to be kind to each other, to respect the motherland, saw crops, raise cattle, accupied with handycraftsman and etc.
To sum up, in «Avesto»
1) Superiority of living as a unit from ancient times in society;
2) Sacred of family which is the sign of society;
3) Respect to the Old, esteem to the young;
4) Kindness – love, respect to women who is the sign of etermity;
5) Patience and labour – loving;
6) Honesty and love and kindness;
7) Person’s rights and owning various ideas;
8) Living with respect to different represantatives of clansmen;
9) Religious humanity;
10) Striving for international knowledge loving – awaraness, and other problems related to the environment are included in the book. So, «Avesto» is the heritage which put peoples courteousness, culture, in wise and religious system. It projects rules which every member of society must follow, Basics of people rights:
1. To protect peoples rights;
2. Labour rights;
3. Right of getting knowledge;
4. To protect the environment and right so of protect it for future generation;
5. Rights between men and woman;
6. Rights of land and farming;
7. Rights of protecting the motherland;
8. Social – political rights;
9. Protecting childhood and motherhood and other, creating democratic country, have been planned.
To sum up, «Avesto» is a book which respects person, aggrandize persons value, and advices friendship, humanity, unamity, labour, courteousness and challenges to protect environment (fire, water, women, motherland) and not to pollute them, to keep pure. It is considered to be tradition of projecting of keeping the environment.
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Материал поступил в редакцию 09.03.2017
© Алламбергенов Е. К., 2017